College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences

Jeffrey W. Shultz

Jeffrey Shultz

Associate Professor


Office Phone: 301.405.7519301.405.7519
Fax: 301-314-9290
Office Address: 4112 Plant Sciences Bldg. University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-4454


  • BSCI 207 Introduction to Biology III - Organismal Biology
  • BSCI 480 Arthropod Form & Function
  • BSCI 481 Insect Diversity & Classification

Graduate Program Affiliations

  • Entomology
  • BISI - BISI-Behavior, Ecology, Evolution, & Systematics (BEES)

Research Interests

Research in my lab focuses on the evolutionary/functional morphology and phylogeny of arthropods, especially arachnids.

Current activity focuses on the evolution of North American harvestmen (especially Leiobunum and Hadrobunus), with emphasis on morphological evolution associated with sexual selection. Work to date has revealed that "mating" in this group is a multi-phase process involving copulation preceded by close-contact courtship that superficially resembles copulation, including the transfer of a fluid, penis-associated nuptial gift. Along with collaborator Marshal Hedin (San Diego State Univ.), we are using molecular-sequence data to determine phylogenetic relationships among these harvestmen and thereby establish a phylogenetic framework for reconstructing patterns in reproductive evolution. We are also conducting taxonomic revisions and documenting harvestman sexual morphology, biomechanics and behavior in an effort to test the hypothesis that mating-system diversity has resulted from a long-term sexual arms race.

Other projects completed recently include a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis of arachnid orders, an analysis of the fluid mechanics of gill ventilation in developing mayflies, and a molecule-based phylogenetic analysis of the major arthropod lineages.

Current Graduate Students

Recent Publications

  • Burns MM, Hedin M, Shultz JW. 2013. Comparative analyses of reproductive structures in harvestmen (Opiliones) reveal multiple transitions from courtship to precopulatory antagonism. PLoS ONE, 8(6): e66767. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066767.
  • Shultz JW. 2013. Significant range extensions for two caddid harvestmen in eastern North America, Caddo pepperella and Acropsopilio boopis (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Caddidae). Zootaxa 3637 (1): 94-96.
  • Shultz JW. 2012. The identity of Hadrobunus grandis: reassignment of Leiobunum aurugineum to H. grandis and H. nonsacculatus new species (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae). Journal of Arachnology 40: 269-303.
  • Hedin M, Starrett J, Akhter S, Shoenhofer AL, Shultz JW. 2012. Phylogenomic resolution of Paleozoic divergences in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) via analysis of next-generation transcriptome data. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42888. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042888.
  • Burns MM, Hedin M, Shultz JW. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the leiobunine harvestmen of eastern North America (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 63: 291-298.
  • Hedin M, Tsurusaki N, Macías-Ordoñez R, Shultz JW. 2012. Molecular systematics of sclerosomatid harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangioidea, Sclerosomatidae): geography is better than taxonomy in predicting phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 62: 224-236.
  • Moore RA, Briggs DEG, Braddy SJ, Shultz JW. 2011. Synziphosurines (Xiphosura: Chelicerata) from the Silurian of Iowa. Journal of Paleontology 85: 83-91.
  • Ingianni E, McGhee CR, Shultz JW. 2011. Taxonomy of the Leiobunum calcar species-group (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae, Leiobuninae). Journal of Arachnology 39: 454-481.
  • Heffer A, Shultz JW, Pick L. 2010. Surprising flexibility in a conserved Hox transcription factor over 550 million years of evolution. PNAS 107: 18040-18045.
  • Shultz JW. 2010. A new species of Hadrobunus (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae, Leiobuninae) from the southeastern United States. Journal of Arachnology 38: 572-580.
  • Sensenig AT, Kiger KT, Shultz JW. 2010. Hydrodynamic pumping by serial gill arrays in the mayfly nymph Centroptilum triangulifer. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 3319-3331.
  • Macías-Ordoñez R, Machado G, Perez Gonzalez A, Shultz JW. 2010. Genitalic evolution in Opiliones, pp. 285-306. In: The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals (J. Leonard, A Cordoba-Aguilar, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Hedin M, Derkarabetian S, McCormack M, Richart C, Shultz JW. 2010. The phylogenetic utility of the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1alpha for resolving recent divergences in Opiliones, emphasizing intron evolution. Journal of Arachnology 39: 9-20.
  • Regier JC, Shultz JW, Zwick A, Hussey A, Ball B, Wetzer T, Martin JW, Cunningham CW. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1084.
  • Awards

    1992-1994, Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellowship in Molecular Studies of Evolution


    • B.S. 1982, Michigan State University
    • M.S. 1985, Ohio University
    • Ph.D. 1990, Ohio State University
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